This book shows the upheavals brought about by the creation of the Universities of Applied Sciences (HES) at the end of the 1990s for all the schools concerned, but especially for those in the economic field which is the largest in terms of number of students in Switzerland. These upheavals are analyzed in detail in this book for the School of Management Fribourg until 2011. This example is interesting because it is also representative of schools in the fields of engineering, health, social affairs, and applied arts amongst others. These upheavals, which led above all to an extraordinary development of these schools, are studied from 1991 to 2011, in the 4 parts of this work. An extraordinary period due to the development of many new activities which have enabled many young people, with vocational and professional training or an academic baccalaureate with at least one year of professional practice, to be able to access a bachelor's degree, a master's degree or continuing training.